LO 4 – Reduced use of synthetic fertilizer


Fertilizers have become an important part of our global food supply chain and are required to keep our population increasing. They, on the other hand, can contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other nutrient losses. Not to mention that a heavy reliance on chemical fertilizers for improved crop yield eventually harms both the environment and human health. Minimum agrochemicals should be utilized as a basic concept of sustainable agriculture to protect the environment and conserve various species. In addition, sustainable agriculture should be a low-input system with reduced production costs and higher net returns. New agricultural approaches can greatly improve the efficiency of agricultural inputs, and thus provide a significant means to ensure the long-term viability of agroecosystems. CRF (controlled release fertilizer) could be a vital component of the sustainable agriculture industry. Microbes as biofertilizers are also being investigated as an alternative to chemical fertilizers in the agricultural industry due to their vast potential to improve crop yield and food safety. Nano-plant growth promoters, nanopesticides, nanofertilizers, nano-herbicides, agrochemical encapsulated nanocarrier systems, and other agricultural nanotechnologies have also been created. Higher crop output, suppression of plant diseases, eradication of undesired weeds and insects with less expense, energy, and waste creation are all potential benefits for agriculture from these new approaches.

Authors & affiliations

Kliment Petrov
Stefka Chankova

Educational goals

To provide background information on the adverse effects of fertilizer production and use including variability of GHG emissions;
To review the attempts on the synthesis and modes of action of control released fertilizers (CRFs);
To present the important roles and applications of biofertilizers in different sectors including agriculture, bioremediation, and ecology;
To highlight the nano-particle materials (NPs) application and point out the vital gaps in the use of nanotechnology for sustainable agriculture.
To support the educational concept and content with ppt, videos, and project work materials.


sustainable agriculture, GHG emission, crop production, ecosystem, controlled-release fertilizer, nanotechnology, biofertilizer